Message from MWRA Executive Director Fred Laskey
Where Does Your Water Come From?
Your water comes from the Quabbin Reservoir, about 65 miles west of Boston, and the Wachusett Reservoir, about 35 miles west of Boston. These reservoirs supply wholesale water to local water departments in 51 communities. The two reservoirs combined supplied about 200 million gallons a day of high quality water to consumers in 2012.
The Quabbin and Wachusett watersheds are naturally protected with over 85% of the watersheds covered in forest and wetlands. To ensure safety, the streams and reservoirs are tested often and patrolled daily by the Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR).
Rain and snow falling on the watersheds - protected land around the reservoirs - turn into streams that flow to the reservoirs. This water comes in contact with soil, rock, plants, and other material as it follows its natural path to the reservoirs. While this process helps to clean the water, it can also dissolve and carry very small amounts of material into the reservoir. Minerals from soil and rock do not typically cause problems in the water. But, water can also transport contaminants from human and animal activity. These can include bacteria, viruses, and fertilizers - some of which can cause illness. The test data in this report show that these contaminants are not a
The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has prepared a Source Water Assessment Program report for the Quabbin and Wachusett Reservoirs. The DEP report commends DCR and MWRA on the existing source protection plans, and states that our “watershed protection programs are very successful and greatly reduce the actual risk of contamination.” MWRA follows the report recommendations to maintain the pristine watershed areas.
Map of the MWRA Water System
How Your Water is Treated
Your Water System
Your tap water is treated at the John J. Carroll Water Treatment Plant in Marlborough. The first treatment step is disinfection of reservoir water. MWRA’s licensed treatment operators carefully add measured doses of ozone gas bubbles – produced from pure oxygen – to the water to kill any pathogens (germs) that may be present in the water. Fluoride is then added to promote dental health. Next, the water chemistry is adjusted to reduce corrosion of lead and copper from home plumbing. Last, we add mono-chloramine, a mild and long-lasting disinfectant combining chlorine and ammonia, which protects the water while it is in the local pipelines.
MWRA’s Improvements to the Water Supply
Since 1985, MWRA and our community partners have made improvements to the entire water system - from the watersheds to the local pipelines. In 2012, MWRA continued construction of a new covered water storage tank in Stoneham and the addition of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection facilities at the treatment plant in Marlborough. Of note this year is the completion of the rehabilitation of the Hultman Aqueduct, ensuring full redundancy from the treatment plant into the distribution system.
Testing Your Water Every Step of the Way:
Test results show few contaminants are found in the reservoir water. The few that are found are in very small amounts, well below EPA's standards. Turbidity (or cloudiness of the water) is one measure of overall water quality. There are two standards for turbidity: all water must be below 5 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units), and only can be above 1 NTU if it does not interfere with effective disinfection. MWRA met both of these standards. Typical levels at the Wachusett Reservoir are 0.4 NTU. In 2012, turbidity was always below both the 5.0 and 1.0 NTU standards, with the highest level at 0.7 NTU. MWRA also tests reservoir water for pathogens such as fecal coliform, bacteria, and the parasites Cryptosporidum and Giardia. They can enter the water from animal or or human waste. All test results were well within state and federal testing and treatment standards.
Test Results - After Treatment
EPA and state regulations require many water quality tests after treatment to check the water you are drinking. MWRA conducts hundreds of thousands of tests per year on over 120 contaminants (a complete list is available on www.mwra.com). Details about 2012 test results are in the table below. The bottom line is that the water quality is excellent.
Tests in Community Pipes
MWRA and local water departments test 300 to 500 water samples each week for total coliform bacteria. Total coliform bacteria can come from the intestines of warm-blooded animals, or can be found in soil, plants, or other places. Most of the time, they are not harmful. However, their presence could signal that harmful bacteria from fecal waste may be there as well. The EPA requires that no more than 5% of the samples in a month may be positive. If a water sample does test positive, we run more specific tests for E.coli, which is a bacteria found in human and animal fecal waste and may cause illness. No E.coli was found in any MWRA community in 2012. If your community found any total coliform in its local pipes, the results will be listed in the additional information from your city or town water department.
Ongoing Research for New Regulations
MWRA has been working with EPA and other researchers to define new national drinking water standards by testing for unregulated substances. To better understand the drinking water, MWRA has also voluntarily been testing for Cryptosporidium and Giardia prior to treatment.
Facts About Lead
What You Need to Know about Lead in Tap Water
MWRA water is lead-free when it leaves the reservoirs. MWRA and local pipes that carry the water to your community are made mostly of iron and steel and do not add lead to the water. However, lead can get into tap water through pipes in your home, your lead service line, lead solder used in plumbing, and some brass fixtures. Corrosion or wearing away of lead-based materials can add lead to tap water, especially if water sits for a long time in the pipes before it is used.
In 1996, MWRA began adding sodium carbonate and carbon dioxide to adjust the water's pH and buffering capacity. This change has made the water less corrosive, thereby reducing the leaching of lead into drinking water. Lead levels found in sample tests of tap water have dropped by almost 90 percent since this treatment change.
MWRA Meets Lead Standards in 2012
Under EPA rules, each year MWRA and your local water department must test tap water in a sample of homes that are likely to have high lead levels. These are usually homes with lead service lines or lead solder. The EPA rule requires that 9 out of 10, or 90%, of the sampled homes must have lead levels below the Action Level of 15 parts per billion (ppb). Test results have met the EPA standard for 9 years straight. Results for the 450 samples taken in September 2012 are shown in the table. 9 out of 10 houses were below 7.7 ppb, which is below the Action Level of 15 ppb. Only two communities had more than one home test above the Action Level for lead. If you live in either of these communities, your community's letter will provide you with more information.
What can I do to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water?
Important Information from EPA about Lead
If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. MWRA is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. If your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 or www.epa.gov/safewater/lead.
Important Information from EPA and DEP
Drinking Water and People with Weakened Immune Systems
Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk for infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbial contaminants are available from the EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline (1-800-426-4791).
Contaminants in Bottled Water and Tap Water
Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline (1-800-426-4791) or MWRA. In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, the Massachusetts DEP and EPA prescribe regulations which limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water which must provide the same protection for public health.
Facts About Sodium
Sodium in water contributes only a small fraction of a person’s overall sodium intake (less than 10%). MWRA tests for sodium monthly and the highest level found was 34.7 mg/L (about 9 mg per 8 oz. glass). This would be considered VERY LOW SODIUM by the Food and Drug Administration.
Information about Cross Connections
Massachusetts DEP recommends the installation of backflow prevention devices for inside and outside hose connections to help protect the water in your home, as well as the drinking water system in your town. For more information on cross connections, please call 617-242-5323 or visit www.mwra.com/crosscon.html.
Wasting water can add up quickly. On average, each person uses about 65 gallons of water each day. More efficient water use can reduce the impact on the water supply and on your wallet. For ways to make your home and your habits more water efficient, contact the MWRA at 617-242-SAVE or visit our web site for tips on saving water indoors and in your backyard.
Where to Go for More Information
If you have questions or comments about this report, please contact us. Call (617) 242-5323, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, or write to: MWRA, Charlestown Navy Yard, Building 39, Boston, MA 02129.
Your Community Letter:
Read your community letter [PDF] for important information about your water from your city or town water department.
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Updated June 6, 2013